How to Create Bootable USB Drives and SD Cards For Every Operating System


Creating installation media for your operating system of choice used to be simple. Just download an ISO and burn it to CD or DVD. Now we’re using USB drives, and the process is a little different for each operating system.


You can’t just copy files form an ISO disc image directly onto your USB drive. The USB drive’s data partition needs to be made bootable, for one thing. This process will usually wipe your USB drive or SD card.


This article was written a while ago, but we’re updating and republishing it today for Windows 10.


First, Make Sure You’re Using a USB 3.0 Drive



For only $15, it’s a great upgrade



USB 2.0 has been around forever, and everything supports it, but it’s notoriously slow. You’ll be much better off making the upgrade to USB 3.0 since the prices have dropped dramatically, and the speed increases are enormous… you can get 10x the speed.

And speed really matters when you’re making a boot drive.


Editor’s Note: We use this Silicon Power USB 3.0 drive here at How-To Geek, and at $15 for a 32 GB version, it’s well worth the upgrade. You can even get it in sizes up to 128 GB if you want.

Don’t worry about compatibility, these faster drives are fully compatible with an old USB 2.0 system, you just won’t get the speed boosts. And if your desktop computer doesn’t support USB 3.0 you can always upgrade it to add support.

From a Windows 10 or Windows 7 ISO


Provide the ISO file and a USB flash drive and the tool will create a bootable drive.


create-bootable-windows-7-usb-drive

From a Linux ISO


Ubuntu recommends the Universal USB Installer for creating bootable Linux USB drives on Windows. This tool can create bootable disc images for many different Linux distributions.UNetbootin is another popular alternative.

Download the Linux distribution you want to use in .ISO form. Run the tool, select your desired distribution, browse to your downloaded ISO file, and choose the USB drive you want to use. The tool will do the rest.


create-bootable-usb-drive-from-linux-iso

You can use similar tools on Linux. For example, Ubuntu includes a Startup Disk Creator tool for creating bootable Ubuntu USB drives. UNetbootin also runs on Linux, so you can use that too.


ubuntu-startup-disk-creator

From an IMG File


Some operating system projects provide an IMG file instead of an ISO file. An IMG file is a raw disk image that needs to be written directly to a USB drive.


Use Win32 Disk Imager to write an IMG file to a USB drive or SD card. Provide a downloaded IMG file and the tool will write it directly to your drive, erasing its current contents. You can also use this tool to create IMG files from USB drives and SD cards.

write-img-file-to-usb-drive-or-sd-card-on-windows

Linux users can use the dd command to directly write an IMG file’s contents to a removable media device. Insert the removable media and run the following command on Ubuntu:


sudo dd if=/home/user/file.img of=/dev/sdX bs=1M



Replace /home/user/file.img with the path to the IMG file on your file system and /dev/sdX with the path to your USB or SD card device. Be very careful to specify the correct disk path here — if you specify the path to your system drive instead, you’ll write the contents of the image to your operating system drive and corrupt it


write-img-file-to-usb-drive-with-dd-on-linux

From a Windows 8 or 8.1 Product Key


If you have a Windows 8 or Windows 8.1 product key, you can download installation media directly from Microsoft and create a USB drive all at once. Download the appropriate tool from the Upgrade Windows with only a product key page. Run it, provide your product key, and tell the wizard you want to create a bootable USB drive.

create-windows-8-usb-flash-drive-or-iso-file

From a Windows 8, 8.1, or 10 ISO


If you already have a Windows 8, 8.1, or 10 ISO file and you want to create installation media without redownloading anything, you can actually use the Windows 7 USB/DVD download tool for this.


Just provide the Windows ISO file when prompted. The tool will happily create Windows installation media if you provide the appropriate ISO file.


create-bootable-usb-drive-from-windows-8-or-8.1-iso-file

With DOS


If you need to boot into DOS to use a low-level firmware upgrade, BIOS update, or system tool that still requires DOS for some reason, you can use the Rufus tool to create a bootable DOS USB drive.

Rufus uses FreeDOS, an open-source implementation of DOS that should run whatever DOS program you need to use.


create-bootable-dos-usb-drive

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